Roman legions-Roman military equipment. List of legionary weapons, armor and clothing. Roman legionary dictionary and terms.
The first Roman soldiers were similar to Greek warriors with a similar equipment. Roman legions adopted various new weapons and armor in later times and this equipment became a standard of Republican and Imperial Roman army.
List of Roman military equipment
Roman Legionary Weapons
Gladius-Roman short sword. Legendary gladius had a many variants (Hispaniensis, Mainz, Pompeii) but it was usually used for stabbing.
Spatha-Roman long sword mostly used by cavalry from 2nd century AD, later adopted by infantry and it substituted the popular gladius. This sword was adopted by Germanic tribes (later vikings) and it developed into classical one handed medieval sword.
Pugio-Roman military dagger, sidearm of legionaries.
Pilum-Heavy and long javelin.
Javelin-Short javelin typical for early legions.
Darts-plumbatae were short range throwing wapons carried in 6 pieces and effective up to 30 yeards.
Bow-Sagitarii (Roman archers) were armed by composite bows made of wood, horn and sinew.
Sling-Vegetius, considers the stone shot from a sling to be more dangerous than the arrow and recommends that it be carried by all recruits, given its light weight and the ready supply of stones.
Roman Legionary Armor
Not all troops wore torso armour. Light infantry, especially in the early Republic, wore little or no armour. This was both to allow swifter movement for light troops and also as a matter of cost.
Legionary soldiers of the 1st and 2nd centuries used a variety of armour types. Some wore mail shirts, while others wore scale armour or lorica segmentata or laminated-strip cuirass.
Lorica segmentata-laminar armour (metal strips fashioned into circular bands).
Lorica hamata-mail armour used during the Roman Republic continuing throughout the Roman Empire as a standard-issue armour for the primary heavy infantry legionaries and secondary troops (Auxilia).
Lorica squamata-scale armour used during the Republic and at later periods.
Manica-segmented armour on one or both arms.
Greave-sheet metal protecting the legs, were widely used in the late Republic, and by some troops in the Imperial army.
Scutum-rectangular, semi-cylindrical body shield carried by Roman legionaries.
Parma-predecessor of scutum shield. It was a yard across (or less) and had iron in its frame.
Cetratus-Light Roman shield used by auxiliaries.
Helmets-Roman helmets, galea or cassis, varied greatly in form. One of the earliest types was the Montefortino helmet used by the Republic armies up to the 1st century BC. This was replaced directly by the Coolus helmet, which raised the neck peak to eye level and set a sturdy frontal peak to the brow of the helmet
Roman Legionary Clothing
Focale-scarf worn of neck protection.
Balteus (sword belt) used for hanging the sword and pugio.
Cloak-sagum or paenula with hood.
Caliga-Roman military boots made of leather straps.
Pteruges- skirt of leather or fabric strips that is worn around the waist to protect the upper legs
Equipment of Roman Legionaries