The first picture of a new Conan played by Jason Momoa. New Conan movie will be released in 2011.
Conan – Jason Momoa
Hanwei Lion Dog katana and Bamboo Mat katana swords with a new blade. High alloy blade from a new Hanwei factory.
These all new katana feature Hanwei’s own high-alloy katana steels (HWS-1S / HWS-2S), which combine impressive performance with a striking O-choji hamon. This steel is made in Hanwei’s new factory, with high-tech equipment, producing a very pure, advanced-metallurgy blade with excellent edge-holding capability and resilience.
These all new katana feature Hanwei’s own high-alloy katana steels (HWS-1S / HWS-2S), which combine impressive performance with a striking O-choji hamon. This steel is made in Hanwei’s new factory, with high-tech equipment, producing a very pure, advanced-metallurgy blade with excellent edge-holding capability and resilience.
Available now, these two attractive katana join the Silver Anniversary Shinto in an exciting line of swords utilizing Hanwei’s own High Alloy Steels (HWS-1S and HWS-2S). Made in Hanwei’s new factory, these two high-tech steels are proving to be not only unrivaled in their performance and resilience but Hanwei is paying special attention during differential hardening to produce some of the most intricate hamon styles and variations we’ve yet seen. This revolutionary blade material along with the traditional sword fitting themes combine to create a high quality package at very attractive prices.
Lion Dog Katana features an O-Kissaki blade of HWS-1S steel, which combines superior performance with an outstanding O-choji hamon. This steel offers the best edge-holding capability and resilience of any blade ever produced by Hanwei. The outstanding performance characteristics of blades forged from HWS-1S steel derive from a combination of the careful selection of alloying elements and a complex processing procedure, basically involving the manipulation of the steel’s carbon content across the blade section. This results in a very tough and resilient blade with a hard, highly abrasion-resistant edge. The sharply detailed fittings feature a Lion-dog themed black iron tsuba, with matching fuchi/kashira and golden peony menuki. The complex saya features a gloss-lacquered ribbed section at the koiguchi/kurikata with the balance spatter-lacquered for a very attractive appearance. The premium multi-colored sageo is hand-woven in pure silk.
Bamboo Mat Katana features a Chu-Kissaki blade in the Shinogi Zikuri style of HWS-2S steel, which combines impressive performance with a striking O-choji hamon. The fittings feature a bamboo-themed black iron tsuba, textured in a bamboo mat design with a jointed bamboo rim and highlighted with gold-tipped bamboo leaves. The fuchi/kashira follow the same theme and the golden menuki feature a pair of sparrows. The saya is finished in high-gloss lacquer with horn fittings.
Hanwei video: James Williams of Bugei testing HWS-1S steel on yellowed bamboo
Celtic Gods: List of Celtic Gods and Goddesses. Celtic mythology, druidism and celtic legends in ancient Europe.
Celtic polytheism was animistic, believing in spirits existing in natural objects such as trees and rocks. Religious beliefs and practices of the Celts varied throughout the different Celtic lands. Celtic polytheism declined in the Roman Empire period, especially after the outlawing of one form of it, Druidism, by the emperor Claudius in 54 CE. Celtic mythology was preserved mostly in later christian legends (Merlin, King Arthur, Tristan and Isolde).
In the early period, Druidic rites were held in clearings in the forest. Sacred buildings were used only later under Roman influence. The Druids were suppressed in Gaul by the Romans under Tiberius (reigned ad 14–37) and probably in Britain a little later. In Ireland they lost their priestly functions after the coming of Christianity and survived as poets, historians, and judges (filid, senchaidi, and brithemain). Many scholars believe that the Hindu Brahman in the East and the Celtic Druid in the West were lateral survivals of an ancient Indo-European priesthood. The Druids offered human sacrifices for those who were gravely sick or in danger of death in battle. Huge wickerwork images were filled with living men and then burned; although the Druids preferred to sacrifice criminals, they would choose innocent victims if necessary.
Area of celtic tribes
Celts lived mostly in western and central Europe. Here is map of Celtic tribes.
List of Celtic Gods
AMAETHON : Welsh God of Agriculture. A son of Don and brother of Gwydion. Associated with plowing and husbandry. The modern Welsh name for a farmer is amaethwr and the Welsh word for plowman is amaeth.
ANGUS MAC OG : Ireland; god of youth, love, and beauty. One of the Tuatha De Danann, name means “young son.” He had a harp that made irresistible music, and his kisses turned into birds that carried messages of love.
ARAWN : Wales; god of the dead and the underworld Annwn. God of revenge, terror, and the dead.
BARINTHUS : Welsh, Anglo-Celtic, A charioteer to the residents of the Otherworld who was once probably a sea or sun God.
BELATUCADROS : British Celtic War God. His name means “fair shining one”.
BELI : Welsh, The primary Welsh father God, husband of Don, and father of Arianrhod. Also a minor sun God who some feel is the Welsh equivalent of Balor.
BORVO : Breton, God of healing. Borvo’s name means ‘to boil’, and he was a God of the hot springs.
BRAN THE BLESSED : Welsh, Pan-Celtic, Also Bran MacFebal. His name means ‘crow’, or ‘Raven’. Associated with ravens, he is the God of prophecy, the arts, leader, war, the Sun, music, writing.
CAMULOS : British, War God. Known from inscriptions and coinage bearing the symbol of a boar.
CERNUNNOS : Pan-Celtic, Known to all Celtic areas in one form or another. The Horned God; God of Nature; God of the Underworld and the Astral Plane; Great Father; “the Horned One”.
CONDATIS : Britain, God who personified the waters, his sacred sites were wherever two rivers or bodies of water met.
DISPATER : Continental, Also Dis Pater. Gaulish God, whose name means “the Father,” was a primal God of creation who later merged with both Don and Cernunnos, the Horned God. The Gauls all believed themselves to be descended from him.
DWYVAN : Welsh, Also Dwyfan. Dwyvan and his wife, Swyfach, are the heroes of the Welsh flood myth. Together they built an ark, filled it with animals, and survived the great flood caused by Addanc, a lake God/dragon/faery. Though later versions of this myth are distorted in order to make it conform to the Biblical verson. Later on the Christoan church went to great lengths to destroy any records on the truth of this history.
DYLAN : Welsh, God of the Sea. His symbol was a silver fish.
ESUS : Breton, Continental, Also Essus. A harvest God worshipped in Brittany, and in Gaul by the people known as the Essuvi.
GOVANNON : Welsh, God of smiths and metalworkers. The weapons he makes are deadly in their aim, the armor unfailing in its protection.
GRANNOS : Scottish, Anglo-Celtic, Continental, An early continental God of mineral springs whose shrines have been found in the Scotland town of Musselburgh, in Auvergne, France, and near Edinburgh, Scotland.
GWYDDNO : Welsh, This one time sea God came down in myth as a monster of faery of the ocean.
GWYN AP NUAD : Welsh, King of the Fairies and the underworld.
THE HORNED GOD : Pan-Western European, Opener of the Gates of Life and Death; Herne the Hunter; Cernunnos; Green Man; Lord of the Wild Hunt. The masculine, active side of Nature; Earth Father. His sacred animals were the stag, bull, goat, bear.
LLUD : Anglo-Celtic, Welsh, Known in Wales as the son of Beli, and a death God in his own right.
LUGH : Pan-Celtic, The Shining One; Sun God; God of War; “Many Skilled”; “Fair-Haired One”; “White or Shining”; a hero god.
MANDRED : Cornish, In Cornish legends, Mandred is the true name of God which, when pronounced, draws the All-Power to the one speaking it.
MYRRDIN WYLLT : Welsh, A woodland God who deliberately grew feathers so he could leap from tree to tree.
OGHMA : Scottish, Irish, God of communication and writing who invented the Ogham Alphabet and gave it to the Druids.
List of Celtic Goddesses
ACHTLAND : Pan-Celtic, A Goddess queen whom no mortal man could satisfy, she took a giant from the faery realm as her mate. Legend says that she took great pleasure combing his long, fair hair.
ADSULLATA : British, A Goddess of hot springs who came to Brittany from Celtic Gaul. She is the origin of the Anglo-Celtic sun Goddess Sul, and was most likely a minor sun Goddess in her own right before the time when the Celts relegated the majority of their sun images to male deities, and moon images to female ones.
AERTEN : Cornish, Anglo-Celtic, Welsh, Also spelled Aerfen, or Aeron. A Goddess of fate who presided over the outcome of war between several Celtic clans.
AGRONA : Welsh, Anglo-Celtic, Goddess of slaughter and war often equated with the Morrigan.
AIFE : Irish, Scottish, Also spelled Aoife. Aife was a Goddess and queen of the Isle of Shadow, an honor she shared with her rival and sister Scathach.
AINE : AN-yuh, Ireland, a woman of the Leanan Sidhe (Sweetheart of the Sidhe). Some said she was the daughter of Manannan, some said she was the Morrigan herself.
ANDARTA : Gallic, Fertility Goddess and patron Goddess of the Vocontii tribe.
ANDRASTE : Romano-Celtic; British; Anglo-Celtic; Continental Europe, The patron Goddess of the Iceni tribe.
ANU : Ireland, goddess of plenty and Mother Earth. Greatest of all Irish goddesses, deity of cattle, health, fertility, prosperity, and comfort.
AOIBHELL : Evill, Ireland; another woman of the Sidhe, she made her dwelling in Craig Liath.
ARIADNE : Continental European, This Goddess of ancient Crete is the only Greek deity known to have been worshipped in Celtic Gaul.
ARIANRHOOD : Wales; goddess of beauty, fertility, and reincarnation. Known as Silver Wheel and the High Fruitful Mother, the palace of this sky goddess was Caer Arianrhold (Aurora Borealis).
ARNAMENTIA : Anglo-Celtic, Romano-Celtic, British, Water Goddess known only from inscriptions.
AVETA : Romano-Celtic Gallic, Goddess of birth and midwifery.
Badb : Bibe, Ireland, goddess of enlightenment, inspiration, life, wisdom. Sister of Macha, the Morrigan, and Anu, the name of this goddess means “boiling,” “battle raven,” and “scald-crow.”
BELISAMA : Celtic, Goddess of light and fire, the forge and of crafts. She is the wife of the god Belenus (Beli) and the Goddess of the Mersey River.
BLODEUWEDD : Welsh, “Flower Face”; “White Flower”. Lily maid of Celtic initiation ceremonies. Also known as the Ninefold Goddess of the Western Isles of Paradise.
BRIGANTIA : British, Anglo-Celtic, “High One”; pastoral and river goddess. Associated with Imbolc. Flocks, cattle, water, fertility; healing; victory.
BRITANNIA : Romano-Celtic British, Tutelary Goddess. The genia loci of Britain who first appears on the coinage of Antoninius Pius in the 2nd century AD. She became the symbol of the British Empire after being partly syncretized with the war goddess Minerva.”
CAILLEACH BHEUR : Scottish, Irish, Manx, Great Goddess in her Destroyer aspect; called “Veiled One”. Another name is Scota, from which Scotland comes. In parts of Britain she is the Goddess of Winter. She was an ancient Goddess of the pre-Celtic peoples of Ireland. She controlled the seasons and the weather; and was the goddess of earth and sky, moon and sun.
CERRIDWEN : Scottish, Welsh, Moon Goddess; Great Mother; Grain Goddess; Goddess of Nature.
CLIODNA : Irish, Scottish, Goddess of beauty and the otherworld. A Tuatha sea and Otherworld Goddess who often took the form of a sea bird and, as such, symbolized the Celtic afterlife.
CLOTA : Scottish, Popular Goddess of the River Clyde.
CONDWIRAMUR : Welsh, Cornish, An archetypal guardian of the feminine mysteries and a Goddess of sovereignty who appears briefly in the Grail legends as the wife of Sir Percival.
CORRA : Scottish, A Goddess of prophecy who usually appeared in the form of a crane.
COVENTINA : Anglo-Celtic, Scottish, British, Tutelary and water Goddess of uncertain affinities.
CRED : Irish, Scottish, Also Creide. This faery queen Goddess is associated with Dana’s mountains, the Paps of Any.
CREDDYLAD : Welsh, Daughter of the sea god Llyr.
CYHIRAETH : Welsh, Once a Goddess of streams, she later bacame thought of as a faery spirit who was a portent of death.
DAMARA : Anglo-Celtic, An English fertility Goddess associated with Bealtaine.
DAMONA : Gaul, Goddess of fertility and healing; her name means “divine cow”. Cow Goddesses were linked to fertility and abundance.
DIVONA : Gaul, A fertility Goddess associated with water and known only from inscriptions.
DRUANTIA : Breton, “Queen of the Druids”, Mother of the tree calendar; Fir Goddess. Fertility, passion, sexual activities, trees, protection, knowledge, creativity.
EPONA : Pan-Celtic, “Divine Horse”; “The Great Mare”; Goddess of horses; Mother Goddess. Fertility, maternity, protectress of horses, horse-breeding, prosperity, dogs, healing springs, crops.
ERCE : Anglo-Celtic, Earth mother and harvest Goddess symbolized by a womb or by an over-flowing horn of plenty, believed to be Basque in origin.
GOEWIN : Welsh, The Goddess of sovereignty who held the feet of Math while he reigned. She was only exempt from doing so when he went to war.
HABETROT : Anglo-Celtic, Habetrot was a “spinning” Goddess. Spinning is both Pagan lingo for spell casting and for the turning of the Wheel of the Year.
HENWEN : Anglo-Celtic, A sow Goddess much like her Welsh counterpart Cerridwen. She is the deity who brought abundance to the land by giving birth to an assortment of “litters” throughout England.
LATIS : Anglo-Celtic, Goddess associated with water. She was originally a lake Goddess who became a Goddess of ale and meade.
Le FAY : Welsh, Cornish, LeFay was a Goddess of the sea an dof the Isle of Avalon.
MARCIA PROBA : Anglo-Celtic, This English Goddess’ Roman name means “deep march” or “long march”, a Celtic warrior queen who lived around the third century BCE. Her laws, known as the Marcian Statutes, some scholars claim these statutes laid the ground work for the Magna Carta.
MODRON : Welsh, Goddess whose name means “divine mother”. She is one of the most potent of the Celtic archetypal mother Goddess.
MORGAN LeFAY : Welsh, Welsh death-goddess; Morgan the Fate. Glamorgan in Wales is said to be her sacred territory. She can cast a destroying curse on any man.
MORGAY : Scottish, Anglo-Celtic, A harvest Goddess from the Scottish/English border.
MORRIGAN : Pan-Celtic. Also the Morrigu; “Great Queen”; “Supreme War Goddess”; “Queen of Phantoms or Demons”; “Specter Queen”; shape-shifter. Reigned over the battlefield, helping with her magic, but did not join the battles. Associated with crows and ravens. The Crone aspect of the Goddess; Great Mother; Moon Goddess; Great White Goddess; Queen of the Fairies. In her Dark Aspect (the symbol is then the raven or crow) she is the goddess of war, fate and death; she went fully armed and carried two spears. Goddess of rivers, lakes, and fresh water. Patroness of priestesses and witches.
NANTOSUELTA : Continental, Also Nantsovelta. Her Breton name is Nataseuelta. She is a river Goddess from Celtic Gaul whose name means “of the meandering stream”.
NICEVENN : Scottish, “Divine”; “Brilliant”. A Samhain witch-goddess; equated with the Roman Goddess Diana.
NIMUE : Welsh, Cornish, Celtic Moon Goddess; also called Morgan.
OANUAVA : Breton, Continental, An ancient earth Goddess from Celtic Gaul.
List of famous viking warriors, jarls and kings. Viking conquests and discoveries.
List of famous Vikings
Askold and Dir (legendary Varangian conquerors of Kiev)
Björn Ironside (pillaged in Italy and son of Ragnar Lodbrok)
Egill Skallagrímsson (popular icelandic warrior and skald, see also Egils saga)
Erik the Red (discoverer of Greenland, father of Leif Eriksson)
Gardar Svavarsson (discoverer of Iceland)
Guthrum (colonised England)
Harald Finehair (founder and first king of Norway; some dispute, as part of the etymological dispute discussed above, whether he really merits the label “Viking” at all)
Harald Hardrada (king of Norway and member of the Varangian Guard)
Ingvar the Far-Travelled (the leader of the last great Swedish viking expedition, which pillaged the shores of the Caspian Sea).
Ivar the Boneless (disabled son of Ragnar Lodbrok who, despite having to be carried on a shield, nevertheless conquered York)
Ingólfur Arnarson (colonised Iceland)
Leif Eriksson (discoverer of America – Vinland, son of Eric the Red)
Oleg of Kiev (conquered Kiev, founded Kievan Rus’ and attacked Constantinople)
Ragnar Lodbrok (captured Paris)
Rollo of Normandy (founder of Normandy, predecessor of William who conquested England after Battle of Hastings in 1066)
Rurik (founder of the Rus’ rule in Eastern Europe and Rurik dynasty)
Skagul Toste (the first Viking to exact the Danegeld)
Styrbjörn Starke (conqueror of Jomsborg)
Thorfinn Karlsefni (colonizer of Vinland)
Roman military ranks. Ranks in Roman army – legion ranks, auxiliary and praetorian ranks. Roman army hierarchy, recruits and officers. Legatus, praefectus, tribune, centurion.
I. Legionary rank structure
Roman legionaries had to be Roman citizens under the age of 45. They enlisted in a legion for twenty-five years of service, a change from the early practice of enlisting only for a campaign. The last five years were on veteran lighter duties (situation after Marian reform).
Tiro (recruit). He was not yet subjected to full rigours of military discipline untill he passed out and was registered as a real soldier, no regular pay so presumably living of his enlistment bounty or viaticum.
Miles (private) also: munifex (fatigue worker) or gregralis / gregarius (literally: herd animal). He was on basic pay and eligible for fatigue duties. Legionary cavalrymen had higher basic pay, as did their NCO’s due to the higher cost of equipment and may have had immunis status as a rule, though this is not certain.
Discens (trainee). Private in training for special function, basic pay and eligible to fatigue duties.
Immunis (immune (from fatigues)). Attested from the second century AD onwards, the late first century opera vacans may have been an earlier designation for the same position. Specialist with basic pay and immunity from certain fatigue duties, could apparently be granted this status both indefinitely and temporarily as one inscription lists an immunis perpetuus.
There is a lot of confusion regarding rank and function in the Roman army. Some specialist positions could be held by men of various rank (eg exercitator or cavalry instructor) and this has led to some authors assigning NCO status to all men holding a specialist position, even in cases that this cannot be confirmed by direct evidence. It is important to be weary of functions that could be held by privates, NCO’s and subaltern officers alike.
Non commissioned officers
Sesquiplicarius (NCO on basic pay and a half). Junior NCO. Example: tesserarius (NCO in charge of watch words) and vexillarius or vexillifer (flag bearer).
Duplicarius (NCO on double basic pay). Senior NCO. Examples: optio centuriae (rearrank officer), signifer (standardbearer), cornicularius (administrator), aquilifer (eagle standard bearer). Epigraphic evidence for career structures does not allow to distinguish a coherent system of promotion between these first three different duplicarius functions, so perhaps there were either frequently changes in status between the three of them or all three were of identical seniority. Note that optio (‘chosen man’) could also be used for mere privates with special duties rather than real NCO’s leading to some confusion in determining career patterns.
Triplicarius (NCO on triple basic pay). Senior NCO. Evidence for this rank is very rare and it may have existed for only a brief while.
Salararius (salaratus). Some soldiers with special skills served against non standard service conditions, either as mercenaries or reenlisted veterans, and received salaria instead of regular stipendia, a special rate of pay.
Duplicarii and sesquiplicarii combined became known as principales from the second century AD on. Cavalry NCO’s received double the higher cavalryman’s basic pay (stipendia equestria). Discharge benefits, praemia or commoda, and special bonuses, donativa, followed the same rates as basic pay.
Centurion (‘commander of hundred’, officer in command of a centuria) also ordinarius or title derived from original place in the battle order. There was some variation in seniority and remuneration between these officers. Those with prior in their titles (hastatus prior, princeps prior and pilus prior) led the manipuli with officers with posterior in their titles (hastatus posterior, princeps posterior and pilus posterior) acting as deputies. Pili could also be named triarius, though this was very rare under the empire (one certain case, one possible). It is thought that the pilus prior was in command of a legion’s cohort. Pay for all these officers was at least fifteen times that of a ranker. The socalled primi ordines, the centurions of the first cohort, had much higher status and pay (estimated at at least thirty times basic pay) than the other officers. The primus pilus was the most senior centurion and received 60 times basic pay plus entry into the equestrian order after completion of his stint.
In addition to the 59 or 60 ordinarii (those actually commanding an ordo or centuria of the legion) there was an unknown number of supernumerarii attached to each legion. These officers had special functions in the legionary cavalry, military intelligence, medical service, elite legionary infantry and various other postings in the governor’s staff or imperial horse guards.
The centurions were either equestrians or curiales directly commissioned from civilian life or had started out as buck privates and earned their position by serving in NCO postings in the legion or the imperial praetorian guard. Directly commissioned equestrian officers may have had different pay as they received salaria instead of the usual stipendia. Note that there were, as far as can be established with our present sources, no decuriones for the imperial era legionary horse in contrast with the republican legion. Apparently these cavalrymen were now commanded either by centurions or NCO’s.
Tribunus. There were six of these officers to a legion and usually there were five equestrian tribuni angusticlavii and one senatorial tribunus laticlavius, named thin – or broad striped after the purple lines on their tunics that indicated their social status. The last one was had higher status and functioned as second-in-command of the legion. The equestrians were generally career officers with previous commands over auxiliary foot regiments, for senatorial youths this was often their first post. Some tribuni served only six month tours rather than the more usual 1-3 years. A few served two or even rarer three stints of duty. Though modern works often ascribe these officers purely administrative tasks, the source material indicates that these had by no means replaced their tactical command function.
Praefectus castrorum. This camp commandant usually had held the post of senior centurion and was in charge of a host of tasks. Of equestrian status, he was third in the chain of command, except in Egypt and later also in special circumstances when this officer acted as praefectus legionis, sometimes with the additional designation agens in vice legati, acting in place of a legate.
Legatus legionis. A senatorial officer who generally had seen prior service as tribunus and was placed in charge of the legion. Some special cases included equestrians elevated to senatorial status with previous commands in the auxilia.
II. Auxiliary rank structure
Auxiliaries (helpers) were supporting troops in Roman army. Their members were recrited from non Roman tribes and nations.
Auxiliary rankers, NCO’s and subaltern officers
Generally the same as for the legions. The equites cohortales, cavalrymen attached to a cohors equitata, an infantry formation with organic cavalry component, had higher status and pay then the foot soldiers, but inferior to that of the equites alares, the troopers of the cavalry regiments. A peculiarity of auxiliary cavalry noncom titles is that they were often just named after their pay grade rather than their function. Auxiliary cavalry turmae were led by decuriones, who were of similar rank to infantry centuriones. Some similar type of ranking structure may have existed for auxiliary decuriones and centuriones, but surviving details are sketchy. Since there were auxiliary ordinarii perhaps some auxiliary units had supernumerary officers as well. Auxiliary infantrymen received either five sixths or equal amounts compared to the pay of legionaries, cavalrymen received more. Cavalry is not attested as having built anything themselves, so perhaps they had all status of immunis or were excused certain types of menial tasks. Many auxiliary noncoms and subaltern officers were either transferred legionaries or otherwise Roman citizens rather than peregrini (freeborn unenfranchised provincials).
Praefectus cohortis. Commander of an infantry unit or infantry unit with organic horsemen. Usually the first post in the equestrian military career (tres militiae) and for some the last, it appears to have been of equal status and remuneration as the legionary centurionate. Men with good service records or influential friends could go on to a legionary tribunate or post of tribunus cohortis. A post of subpraefectus is known from the early principate, though its precise details are unclear.
Tribunus cohortis. Commander of a unit originally raised from Roman citizens or of milliary (thousand strong) strength. Usually a second post in the equestrian military career.
Praefectus alae. Commander of a quingenary (five hundred strong) cavalry regiment. Usually the third post in the equestrian military career, though for a short period the second. The post of praefectus alae of a milliary unit brought great prestige and was the extraordinary militia quarta (fourth post in equestrian army career).
Most equestrian commands lasted 2 to 4 years, though it could in some cases be held for 10 years or more. For most equestrians military serice seems to have been a professional career, though others only opted for a short military term in an otherwise civilian career. Some equestrian’s opted for a legionary centurionate rather than an auxiliary prefecture, which is thought to have offered more secure employment.
III. Preatorian rank structure
Praetorians were guard of Roman emperors. Preatorians were the only military units allowed to stay in Rome.
Milites. Regular soldiers of the guard.
Immunes. Guardsmen with secondary specialist roles that exempted them from other less than desired duties. After five years these soldiers were allowed to serve in the Equites singulares (cavalry branch).
Evocati. After 16 years of service guardsmen could retire with a sizeable cash payment. Guardsmen who chose to stay in service after the 16 year period were called Evocati and gained privileges.
Centuriones. Praetorian Centurions commanded centuries of guardsmen while the most senior centurions commanded entire cohorts.
Tribuni. These officers acted as staff officers and as deputies to the Praetorian Prefects.
Praefectus. The highest rank in the Praetorian Guard, head of the Praetorian Guard.
Japanese sword making guide, history and sword parts of samurai sword. Japanese sword crafting.
Japanese swords played an extraordinary role in Japanese history, beginning with the mythology of it’s creation. The Sun Goddess, Amaterasu Omikami is said to have given her grandson, Ninigi-no Mikoto, a sword when he was sent down to reign on earth.
Swords were thought to have miraculous powers and lives of their own. As a result a strict code of etiquette was developed for handling and maintaining swords. Swords were thought to have miraculous powers and lives of their own. Soldiers defeated in battle prayed at the shrines of the war-god Hachiman, asking why their swords had lost their spirit. Many stories have come down about the spiritual powers of notable blades as well as the keen sharpness of the blade.
Japanese sword parts
One of these stories tells about two famous swordsmiths, named Muramasa and Masume, who were considered almost equal in skill. They decided to have a contest to see who could make a better sword. As a test for the sword, Muramasa held his sword upright in a swift running stream. Every dead leaf that drifted against the edge of the sword was cut neatly in two. When Masume put his sword to the same test, the floating leaves avoided its edge passing unhurt on either side; Masume’s blade therefore was declared superior to its rival as it clearly possessed a spiritual and/or mystical power.
Because of the importance of the sword and the mystical significance attached to them, the sword makers were an honored class, and they approached their task with great solemnity. It was believed that only those with the purest of hearts and the highest moral standards, could become a master swordsmith. Thus, those who mastered the art were honored and highly respected by their feudal lords.
The Making of the Blade
Before forging the blades, the swordsmiths underwent fasting and ritual purification. They then worked at their anvils in white clothes, like the robes of the priests. There efforts were well rewarded; as early as the 13th Century, Japanese swords were recognized as far superior than any made elsewhere in the world. Not until the development of modern scientific metallurgy in the 19th century, could steel be made that would challenge the quality of that made by these Japanese swordsmith 600 years earlier.
To produce their superlative blades, Japanese artisans had to overcome a problem that had baffled all armorers throughout the world since the earliest time of recorded history. Sword makers could make steel very hard so that it would hold a sharp edge. However, making steel very hard also made it very brittle and often in battle a sword would be broken if hit just right against another sword or object. The sword makers knew how to make soft steel that would be less brittle and would not break in battle. However soft steel would not hold a sharp edge and it would quickly dull in battle and would not be able to cut through armor or hack of limbs and heads as a good sword was expected to do.
One way the Japanese sword makers solved the problem was to hammer together layers of steel of varying hardness welding them into a metal sandwich. This sandwich of metal layers was then reheated, folded back on itself and hammered out thin again. After this had been repeated about a dozen times, the steel consisted of thousands of paper-thin laminations of hard and soft metal. When it was ground to a sharp edge the hard metal stood out and resisted dulling, while the soft steel kept the sword from breaking.
Japanese Sword making technology
But to produce their best blades, the swords that are sought after by collectors today, the Japanese sword makers used a much more intricate process. For the core, or interior, of the blade, they used a comparatively soft, laminated metal that would resist breaking. The blade’s exterior and edge, however, were made of different grades of hard steel welded together in a sandwich that was folded and hammered out as many as 20 times or more, giving it more than a million laminations! This outer “skin” of steel could be made even harder by first heating the sword and then suddenly cooling it. As a final step the master swordsmith would cover the roughly finished blade with a thick layer of adhesive material, mostly clay, leaving only the edge exposed, and heat the blade until the glowing metal reached the right shade of color. The best way to judge this crucially delicate stage was to work in a darkened room. Then with prayer, the sword maker would plunge the heated blade into water. The exposed edge cooled instantly while the rest of the blade, protected by the clay, cooled slowly and remained comparatively soft. The final result was a sword blade of soft non-brittle metal enclosed in a thin layer of hard steel. About one fifth of an inch of its edge was made of metal so hard that it held a razor sharpness during repeated use in battle.
List of medieval battles ordered by date. More than 90 famous medieval battles. Medieval warfare.
List of Famous Medieval Battles
Battle of Châlons (451)
Sack of Rome (455)
Battle of Salsu (612)
Battle of Badr (624)
Battle of Uhud (625)
Battle of the Trench (627)
Battle of Mu’tah (629)
Conquest of Mecca (630)
Battle of Walaja (633)
Battle of Ullais (633)
Battle of Zumail (633)
Battle of Firaz (634)
Battle of Bosra (634)
Battle of Ajnadayn (634)
Battle of Fahl (635)
Battle of Yarmouk (636)
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (636)
Battle of Iron bridge (637)
Battle of Baekgang (663)
Battle of Guadalete (711)
Siege of Constantinople (718)
Battle of Tours (732)
Battle of Rajasthan (738)
Battle of Talas (751)
Battle of Pliska (811)
Sack of Rome (846)
Battle of Anchialus (917)
The Battle of Brunanburh (937)
Battle of Lechfeld (955)
Battle of Tara (980)
Battle of Maldon (c. 991)
Battle of Kleidion (1014)
Battle of Stamford Bridge (1066)
Battle of Hastings (1066)
Battle of Manzikert (1071)
Battle of Levounion (1091)
Siege of Jerusalem (1099)
Battle of Didgori (1121)
Siege of Lisbon (1147)
Battle of Caishi (1161)
Battle of Tangdao (1161)
Battle of Sirmium (1167)
Battle of Myriokephalon (1176)
Battle of Hattin (1187)
Battle of Adrianople (1205)
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212)
Battle of Bouvines (1214)
Battle of Parwan (1221)
Battle of Indus (1221)
Battle of the Kalka River (1223)
Battle of Klokotnitsa (1230)
Battle of Legnica (1241)
Battle of Mohi (1241)
Battle of Baghdad (1258)
Battle of Fishing Town (1259)
Battle of Ain Jalut (1260)
Battle of Xiangyang (1273)
Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen (Battle on the Marchfeld) (1278)
Battle of Yamen (1279)
Second Battle of Homs (1281)
Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297)
Battle of the Golden Spurs (1302)
Battle of Bannockburn (1314)
Second Battle of Athenry (1316)
Battle of Dysert O’Dea (1318)
Battle of Faughart (1318)
Battle of Velbazhd (1330)
Battle of Crécy (1346)
Battle of Poitiers (1356)
Battle of Lake Poyang (1363)
Battle of Adrianople (1365)
Battle of Maritsa (1371)
Battle of Kulikovo (1380)
Battle of Aljubarrota (1385)
Battle of Kosovo (1389)
Battle of Nicopolis (1396)
Battle of Ankara (1402)
Battle of Grunwald/Tannenberg (1410)
Battle of Agincourt (1415)
Battle of Patay (1429)
Battle of Domazlice (1431)
Battle of Lipany (1434)
Battle of Varna (1444)
Fall of Constantinople (1453)
Siege of Belgrade (1456)
Battle of Towton (1461)
Battle of Vaslui (1475)
Battle of Nancy (1477)
Siege of Rhodes (1480)
Battle of Bosworth Field (1485)
Battle of Knockdoe (1504)
Who is the best sword maker in the world? List of top sword manufacturers. Vote for best sword manufacturer.
List of sword manufacturers
SWORD MAKERS AND SAMPLE SWORDS
You can vote for the best sword manufacturer in the following poll. Use comment form to recommend any other sword maker you like.
Detailed info about Sword manufacturers